Authors: Seltzer S, Soltanoff W, Bender IB, Ziontz M.
Title: Biologic aspects of endodontics, I. Histologic observations of the anatomy and morphology of root apices and surrounding structures.
Journal: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol
Date: Sep 1966
Citation: 22(3):375-85
Category: Anatomical Considerations
Evidence-based Ranking: 5
Purpose/Objectives: To gain a greater understanding of the anatomic and morphologic characteristics of the root apices and surrounding tissues of human maxillary anterior teeth. Materials & Methods: Sixty-four non-periodontally involved and forty-two periodontally involved upper central and lateral incisors were extracted and examined histologically for the purpose of studying their anatomic and morphologic characteristics. Observations were made of the blood and nerve supply to, and the morphologic characteristics of, the apical pulp tissue. Results: 1) Accessory and/or lateral canals were observed in 34% of the teeth; 2) Denticles were noted in the root canals of 15% of the teeth; 3) Cell rests of Malassez were detected in the periodontal ligament in 70% of the cases; 4) Resorptions of cementum, externally and within the root canal, were commonly observed (62%) in non-periodontally involved teeth and in 100% of periodontally involved teeth; 5) A thick layer of cementum generally was present around the root apex. The most frequently encountered cementum thickness was in the range of 0.21 – 0.30 mm; 6) The diameter of the root canal was usually smallest at the cementodentinal junction, but there were variations, especially in periodontally involved teeth. Author’s Conclusions: The authors basically concluded or summarized that there is considerable variation in the anatomy of the root apex and that these variations need to be taken into account when endodontic treatment is being provided. Validity of Conclusions: This study was more of an observation and reporting of findings. There were no controls that could be used and nothing was being tested, so really a summary of findings was presented rather than conclusions. Reviewer’s Comments: Good histological study describing the basic anatomy and morphology of the root apex and the variations seen from tooth to tooth.