Authors: Ingle J, Bakland L.
Title: Endodontic considerations in dental trauma.
Journal: Endodontics, 5th edition
Date: Jan 2002
Citation: Chapter 15, table15-1
Category: Trauma
Evidence-based Ranking: 5
Purpose/Objectives: To standardized the classifications of dental injuries.

1. Soft tissues: lacerations, contusions, abrasions 2. Tooth fractures: enamel fractures, uncomplicated crown fractures (w/out pulp exposure), complicated crown fractures (w/ pulp exposure), crown-root fractures, root fractures 3. Luxation injuries: tooth concussion, subluxation, extrusive luxation, lateral luxation, intrusive luxation, avulsion 4. Facial skeletal injuries: alveolar process (maxilla and mandible), body of maxillary and mandibular bone, TMJ