- Authors: Ingle J, Bakland L.
- Title: Endodontic considerations in dental trauma.
- Journal: Endodontics, 5th edition
- Date: Jan 2002
- Citation: Chapter 15, table15-1
- Category: Trauma
- Evidence-based Ranking: 5
- Purpose/Objectives: To standardized the classifications of dental injuries.
1. Soft tissues: lacerations, contusions, abrasions 2. Tooth fractures: enamel fractures, uncomplicated crown fractures (w/out pulp exposure), complicated crown fractures (w/ pulp exposure), crown-root fractures, root fractures 3. Luxation injuries: tooth concussion, subluxation, extrusive luxation, lateral luxation, intrusive luxation, avulsion 4. Facial skeletal injuries: alveolar process (maxilla and mandible), body of maxillary and mandibular bone, TMJ