Authors: Koch KA, Brave DG.
Title: Real World Endo: Design features of rotary files and how they affect clinical performance.
Journal: Oral Health
Date: Feb 2002
Citation: (end of citation)
Category: Access and Canal Instrumentation
Evidence-based Ranking: 5
Purpose/ Objectives: To compare the clinical performances of third generation rotary files: ProTaper, Race, and K3 based on their design features.

Comparison: Tip: cutting or non-cutting tips Taper: a. using files of the same taper with varying apical tip diameters b. files with the same apical tip size but the taper varies from .04 to .12 ie GT Radial Lands: surface that projects axially from the central axis to keep the file centered in the canal. Rake angles: angle formed by the cutting edge and a cross section taken perpendicular to the long axis of the file. Positive rake angle will cut and negative rake angle will scrap inside the canal. Helical flute angles: angle that the cutting edge makes with the long axis of the file. With varying the flute angles, debris will be removed more efficient and the file will be less likely to screw into the canal. Pitch: the number of spirals or threads per unit length. Like helical flute angles, constant the result of a constant pitch is a “sucking down into” the canal.

Reviewer’s Comments: Although the article sounds pro k3, it does provide good information about the file design.