Authors: Grossman LI.
Title: Physical properties of root canal cements.
Journal: J Endod
Date: Jun 1976
Citation: 2(6):166-75
Category: Obturation
Evidence-based Ranking: 5
Purpose/Objectives: To relate the physical properties of root canal cements. Specifically evaluating particle size, flow, setting time, adhesion, and dimensional change.

Materials & Methods: The material studies were AH26, Diaket, Kerr sealer, Mynol, N2, N2 no-lead, Procosol, RC2B, Roth 801, Roth 811, Tubliseal, and zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE). Particle size – size was measured using a series of sieves. Flow – mixed cements were allowed to run down a glass-mixing slab and their rates were recorded. Setting time – was tested with two techniques. Adhesion – tested with a study-specific technique using weights and abraded microscope slides. Dimensional change – mixtures of the cements were tested with dye penetration.

Results: Particle size – the size of the particles did not relate to the amount of flow. From finest to largest the rank was – AH26, Roth 811, Kerr sealer, Roth 801, Mynol, RC2B, N2, N2 no-lead, Procosol, ZOE, and Diaket. Flow – three groups were classified – rapid – AH26, Mynol, Roth 801, Roth 811; moderate – Kerr sealer, Procosol, and Tubliseal; no flow – Diaket, N2, N2 no-lead, RC2B, ZOE. Setting time – from 1 to 40 hours, and from fast to slow – Kerr sealer, Tubliseal, Mynol, RC2B, N2, N2 no-lead, Diaket, Roth 811, Roth 801, ZOE, AH26, Procosol. Adhesion – AH26 and Diaket (two plastics) were superior, none of the others had any ability towards adhesion. Dimensional changes – was difficult to asses because shrinkage did not occur in the tubes used to test, but the general leakage pattern follows– Diaket, Kerr sealer, Procosol, Tubliseal, Roth 801, Roth 811, and RC2B showed the least dimensional change, and in increasing order, N2, N2 no-lead, AH26, Mynol and ZOE showed greater leakage.

Author’s Conclusion: 12 commercial cements were tested, and the results varied in a wide range. The data should help give a better understanding of the materials being used.

Reviewer’s Comments: The study gives a thorough description of the physical properties of root canal cements. While many of the same cements are used today, several new products warrant consideration including those which bond to tooth structure like the Resilon/Epiphany and Real Seal systems.